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留學論文寫作中怎樣修改平行結構(parallelism)

發表時間:2018-03-01

留學論文寫作中怎樣修改平行結構(parallelism)
      Parallelism Structure,平行結構,如果我們留學生在英文論文寫作能夠采用這種修辭句法結構方式可以讓論文結構緊湊,句子之間協調對稱,意義鮮明,從而使得論文邏輯性更強。但是我們很多留學生不具備地道的英語寫作能力和思維,導致寫出來的論文句子平行結構錯亂,從而論文質量下降,未能拿到理想的分數,下文中hotessay小編就給大家說說留學論文中修改平行結構(parallelism structure)的三種方法。

      方法一: 修改少數與其他文法形式不一致的部分
      修改少數與其他文法形式不一致的部分是修正平行結構最簡單的方式,大部分句子都可以使用這個來解決,但是復雜句或子句較多的長句,可能無法適用此方法,因為有可能會變動意思,這類長句的修改方法下面我們會提到。
  非平行結構句 正確平行結構句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. like applesorangesand zoos.
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach advised that I should eat healthily, exercise regularly, and join a gym. (Here, we lose some meaning regarding the fact that joining a gym would make exercising easier.)
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is a celebrated authordancerandsongwriter.
      方法二: 修改多數與其他文法形式不一致的部分
      因為修改多數以配合少數的語法形式容易導致句子重復性高,所以這這個修改方法大家要慎重使用,而且修改多數畢竟要比修改少數花費的時間和精力更多,而且這個方法很容易變動句子的意思。
  非平行結構句 正確平行結構句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. like eating appleseating orangesandgoing to the zoo (“eating” is repetitive).
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach recommended exercisingregularly, eating healthily, and joining a gym. (Here, we lose some meaning regarding the fact that joining a gym would make exercising easier.)
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is celebrated because she writesbooks, dancesand writes great songs.
      方法三: 拆解句子
      有時候修改句子可能需要將句子重組,否則可能會意外變動到原意。為避免失去句子原意,meeloun小編建議將句子衍伸。
  非平行結構句 正確平行結構句
1 like applesorangesand going to the zoo. I like eating apples and orangesI also like going to the zoo.
2 The coach advised that I should eathealthily, exercise regularly, and that joining a gym would make this easier. The coach advised that I should eat healthily and exercise regularly. He also told me that joining a gym would make working out easier.
3 Mary is a celebrated authordancerandwrites great songs. Mary is a celebrated author and dancerShe also writes great songs.
      注意: 比較句
      多數簡單的平行結構句子都是由”and,” “or,” 或”but.”對等連接詞所連接,其他較復雜的句子結構則令人相當困擾。
      · 關系子句使用”that”或”which.”
      · 分詞子句由動詞組成,功能如形容詞,例如:”This car is built to last.”
      · 相關連接詞有 “not only…but also,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,” “if…then,” 等等
      · 比較句的連接詞典型的有 “than” 或 “as.”
      · 以上的句型皆須要使用平行結構!

      在修改這一類的句子時, 找到前后部分并檢查是否兩邊都是同樣的文法形式。
非平行結構句 正確平行結構句
I like the big house built in 1910 and featurestwo great living rooms. I like the big house built in 1910 that features two great living rooms. (Eliminate the problematic parallel structure by removing the conjunction.)
Mary owns a PR company, a place giving many growth opportunities and where people are rewarded based on merit (participial phrase + subordinate clause). Mary owns a PR company, a place giving many growth opportunities where people are rewarded based on merit. (Deleting the “and” fixes the parallelism issue. This method works for most cases where a participial phrase and subordinate clause are connected by a conjunction.)
not only like to play the violin, but alsodancing. not only like to play the violin, but I also like to dance.
OR
I like to not only play the violin but also dance.
Either we go to the store now or wait until next week. Either we go to the store now or we wait until next week.
prefer to go on a vacation than a bonus. prefer to go on a vacation than to receive a bonus.
      注意:動詞時態轉換
      另一個令人糾結的平行結構是動詞轉換?;叵肟纯茨闶欠裼姓f過類似以下的句子:

      “I really like this movie, which was why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, work had to be finished, and we needed to hurry.
      感覺很自然的句子,你發現錯在哪了嗎??

      “I really like this movie, which was why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, work had to be finished, and we needed to hurry.
      句一的時態從現在轉到過去而句二則在that句子突然轉換成被動語態?,F在來修正句子。

      “I really like this movie, which is why I bought it.”
      We knew that we had little time, we had to finish the work, and we needed to hurry.

      下面是Meeloun教育小編給大家整理出的平行結構檢查一覽表,大家在今后的留學論文寫作中就可以按照下面的標準進行平行結果檢查。
      · 找出句中的連接詞
      · 檢查連接詞左右方的單字或句子是否為同樣的形式,例如:動詞、名詞、形容詞、 -ing子句等等。
      · 檢查句中的子句,是否在同等位置有類似的句子?
      · 在句中的連接詞兩邊的動詞時態是否一致?
      · 如果句中有列表,是否列表 (A, B, C, etc.) 內容物的語法形式皆一致?

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