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essay寫作進階篇:副詞的正確打開方式

發表時間:2018-03-18

上篇文章我們談了副詞的各種形式,今天Meeloun小編繼續給大家分享在essay寫作中如何正確使用副詞,快來圍觀!

essay寫作進階篇:副詞的正確打開方式


在標號的列表中用副詞
Using Adverbs in a Numbered List

      在正常的行文中,給多于3個,4個的東西標號是一個"愚蠢的行為"。
      如果大于這個數,你就要用垂直的阿拉伯數字標號了。
      在表單中,不要使用副詞形式(-ly結尾),用序數詞如first,second等。
      First(首先)(not firstly) 副詞修飾的部分不明確。
      Second(其次)(not secondly)沒這個必要。
      Third(第三)(not thirdly) 多于 “其次”的數量詞就開始聽上去蠢蠢的了。像這些代表順序的副詞充當著分隔符的用處。
      Within the normal flow of text, it's nearly always a bad idea to number items beyond three or four, at the most. Anything beyond that, you're better off with a vertical list that uses numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.). Also, in such a list, don't use adverbs (with an -ly ending); use instead the uninflected ordinal number (first, second, third, fourth, fifth, etc.). First (not firstly), it's unclear what the adverb is modifying.Second (not secondly), it's unnecessary. Third (not thirdly), after you get beyond "secondly," it starts to sound silly. Adverbs that number in this manner are treated as disjuncts (see below.)


essay寫作進階篇:副詞的正確打開方式


我們可以省略的副詞
Adverbs We Can Do Without

      復習“簡潔“單元,建議刪除一些副詞來增強行文的流暢性:諸如very, extremely, really這樣的不實際增強任何實際意義和附加結構的增強詞。

      Review the section on Being Concise for some advice on adverbs that we can eliminate to the benefit of our prose: intensifiers such as very, extremely, and really that don't intensify anything and expletive constructions ("There are several books that address this issue.")

副詞的種類
Kinds of Adverbs

      Adverbs of Manner
      方式副詞
      ?    She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

      Adverbs of Place
      地點副詞
      ?    She has lived on the island all her life.
      ?    She still lives there now.
 
      Adverbs of Frequency
      頻率副詞
      ?    She takes the boat to the mainland every day.
      ?    She oftengoes by herself.

      Adverbs of Time
      時間副詞
      ?    She tries to get back before dark.
      ?    It's starting to get dark now.
      ?    She finished her tea first.
      ?    She left early.

      Adverbs of Purpose
      目的副詞
      ?    She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
      ?    She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

副詞的位置
Positions of Adverbs

      One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.
      副詞的其中一個特點是他們能隨意在句子中改變位置的能力。方式副詞是其中特別靈活的副詞種類。
      ?    Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.
      ?    The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
      ?    The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.
      The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:
      以下的頻率副詞在句子中出現在不同的地方。
      ?    Before the main verb(在主動語之前): I never get up before nine o'clock.
      ?    Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb(在助動詞和主動詞之間): I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason.
      ?    Before the verb used to(在動詞之前): I always used to see him at his summer home.

      Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb:
      不定時間副詞既可以出現在動詞前也可以在助動詞 和主動詞之間
      ?    He finally showed up for batting practice.
      ?    She has recentlyretired.

副詞的順序
Order of Adverbs

      There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.
      當有多個副詞的時候,有一個基本的排序方式。和形容詞排序的黃金法則類似,但是更加的靈活。


essay寫作進階篇:副詞的正確打開方式


更多關于副詞的順序
More Notes on Adverb Order

      基本的原則是不管內容是什么,短的副詞短語放在長的副詞短語之前。在下面這個句子中,一個時間副詞放在了頻率副詞之前應為它更短,也更簡單。
      ? Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.
      第二個原則是:在一些簡單的副詞短語中(方式副詞,地點副詞,頻率副詞等),越具體的放的越前面。
      ? My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern Nebraska.
      ? She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.
      把一個修飾副詞放在句子的最前面可以著重強調那個定語。這對方式副詞最有效。
      ? Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above the brim.
      ? Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the inspectors.

      As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases, regardless of content. In the following sentence, an adverb of time precedes an adverb of frequency because it is shorter (and simpler):
      ? Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.

      A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner, place, frequency, etc.), the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:
      ? My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern Nebraska.
      ? She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.

      Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special emphasis on that modifier. This is particularly useful with adverbs of manner:
      ? Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above the brim.
      ? Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the inspectors

不適當的副詞順序
Inappropriate Adverb Order

      復習“放錯位置的定語”章節來鞏固副詞位置的概念。修飾詞如果附在他們本不應該修飾的詞就會混淆句意
      ?    They reported that Giuseppe Balle, a European rock star, had died on the six o'clock news.
      誠然,如果把劃線部分移到前面,緊跟“they reported”或是句首就能避免歧義,不讓句子聽上去像是這男人在新聞節目中死去。

      非常簡單的修飾詞有時也會放錯位置,就像是僅僅和幾乎:
      ?    She only grew to be four feet tall.
      改成“She grew to be only four feet tall.”會更好。

      Review the section on Misplaced Modifiers for some additional ideas on placement. Modifiers can sometimes attach themselves to and thus modify words that they ought not to modify.
      ?    They reported that Giuseppe Balle, a European rock star, had died on the six o'clock news.

      Clearly, it would be better to move the underlined modifier to a position immediately after "they reported" or even to the beginning of the sentence — so the poor man doesn't die on television.

      Misplacement can also occur with very simple modifiers, such as only and barely:
      ?    She only grew to be four feet tall.
      It would be better if "She grew to be only four feet tall."

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