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essay寫作終極篇:副詞在句子中的主要作用

發表時間:2018-03-19

essay寫作終極篇:副詞在句子中的主要作用

看完前兩篇文章Meeloun小編相信留學生們對于副詞的理解一定有了更深刻的認識,今天收尾的同時再給大家補充幾點。希望同學們為了自己的essay寫作能夠堅持看完并融會貫通!

修飾語,分離詞和連詞
Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts

      不管它的位置,副詞經常都工整地嵌在句子中。這種時候,這個副詞被稱作修飾語。(注意這一段前兩句的劃線的修飾語和修飾副詞。)

      當副詞不能嵌進從句時,它被稱作分離詞或連詞而且經常用逗號隔開。
      一個分離詞經常起到評價之后剩余句子的用處。
      雖然它經常修飾動詞,副詞也可以修飾一整個從句。
      (we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too.)
      注意這里“too”就是這句句子中的分離詞。

      too也可以變成一個副詞修飾詞:It’s too hot to play outside. 一下是另外兩個分離副詞:
      ? Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
      ? Fortunately, no one was hurt.

      Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of a sentence. When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an adjunct. (Notice the underlined adjuncts or adjunctive adverbs in the first two sentences of this paragraph.) When the adverb does not fit into the flow of the clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is often set off by a comma or set of commas. A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation of the rest of the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too. Notice how "too" is a disjunct in the sentence immediately before this one; that same word can also serve as an adjunct adverbial modifier: It's too hot to play outside. Here are two more disjunctive adverbs:
      ? Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
      ? Fortunately, no one was hurt.
      在另一方面,連詞,在行文中起著連接的作用,標志著不同想法的過渡。
      ? If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
      ? We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
      這一種類中最極致的純粹用來連接的詞被稱作結合狀語
      ? Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
      ? I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

      Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text, signaling a transition between ideas.
      ? If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
      ? We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
      At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive device known as the conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial conjunction):
      ? Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
      ? I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

一些特殊情況

       The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a postmodifier position:
      副詞“enough”和“not enough”通常作后置定語:
      ?    Is that music loud enough?
      ?    These shoes are not big enough.
      ?    In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly enough.

      (Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the noun:
      注意,當enough充當形容詞的時候,,它也可以放在名詞的前面:
      ?    Did she give us enough time?
      The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:
      副詞enough經常跟在不及物動詞的后面:
      ? She didn't run fast enough to win. 

      The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:
      副詞too經常跟在不及物動詞的后面: 
      ? She runs too slowly to enter this race. 
      The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:
      副詞too放在形容詞和其他副詞的前面:
      ?    Yasmin works hard. She works quickly, too.
      Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a prepositional phrase — for + the object of the preposition — followed by an infinitive:

      另外一個副詞too的常見結構式too加上一個介詞短語—for加介詞對象—跟著一個不及物動詞
      ? This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

關系副詞
Relative Adverbs

      定語從句有時會由關系副詞引導:where, when, 和why。雖然整個從句是定語從句并且會修飾一個名詞,關系詞本身充當著副詞的作用(在從句內修飾一個動詞

      關系副詞where引導著一句修飾地點名詞的從句
      ? My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.

      關系代詞“where”修飾動詞“used to be”(所以where是有副詞詞性的),但整個從句 “where my great grandfather used to be minister”) 修飾了單詞“church”

      一個when從句修飾關于時間的名詞
      ? My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day.

      一個why從句修飾一個關于理由的名詞
      ?      Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

      我們有時會在這樣的從句中隔開關系副詞,另外許多人喜歡在從句中用that替代why
      ?      Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
      ?      I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
      ?      I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

      Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs: where, when, and why. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun, the relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
      The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place:
      ? My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.

      The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial), but the entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the word "church."

      A when clause will modify nouns of time:
      ? My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day.

      And a why clause will modify the noun reason:
      ? Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

      We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses, and many writers prefer "that" to "why" in a clause referring to "reason":
      ? Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
      ? I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
      ? I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

觀點,焦點和否定副詞
Viewpoint, Focus, and Negative Adverbs

      一個觀點副詞通常放在一個名詞后面并且和放在那個名詞前面的形容詞有關系
      ? A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
      ? Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.
      你時常在這些情景中會聽到一些諸如“scholastically speaking”或 “financially speaking”,但單詞“speaking”幾乎不需要。

      一個焦點副詞表明了它連接了的部分被著重強調了,一個焦點副詞會限制句意("He got an A just for attending the class.")或當成一個添加劑("He got an A in addition to being published.”)

      雖然像是否定詞“not”和“never”經常嵌在動詞中
      —"He has never been much help to his mother.”—
      他們并不是動詞的一部分。他們其實是副詞。

      然而,一個所謂的否定副詞在句子中創造的否定含義和平常用的no/not/neither/nor/never結構所不同。
      ? He seldom visits.
      ? She hardly eats anything since the accident.
      ? After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

      A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that precedes that noun:
      ? A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
      ? Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.

      You will sometimes hear a phrase like "scholastically speaking" or "financially speaking" in these circumstances, but the word "speaking" is seldom necessary.

      A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the sense of the sentence ("He got an A just for attending the class.") or to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being published.”)

      Although negative constructions like the words "not" and "never" are usually found embedded within a verb string — "He has never been much help to his mother." — they are technically not part of the verb; they are, indeed, adverbs. However, a so-called negative adverb creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:
      ? He seldom visits.
      ? She hardly eats anything since the accident.
      ? After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

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