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英文論文寫作如何讓句式豐富多變?

發表時間:2018-04-26

英文論文寫作

據說,中國留學生在英文論文寫作時,傳統的三大主語分別是:people/ there be/ it。雖然不確定這個總結的權威性,但是不得不承認的是,大家寫出來的句子,確實很像。而這種相似性,很多時候來自于句首的幾個單詞。

      如果以 people 開始整句話,八成后面是一個比較簡單的句子,people will 做什么事情,people should 做什么事情。如果是 there be,則后面跟一個名詞,然后再加動詞的時候,還可能會出現語法的錯誤(沒有加 which,或者變分詞)。

      不得不說,看慣了這樣重復句式的老師,出現審美疲勞,然后錯誤的給出較低的分數,完全是可以理解的。在英文論文寫作中,句式變化的需求非常大:

      優秀:uses a wide range of structures
      一般:uses a variety of complex structures
      及格:uses a mix of simple and complex sentenceforms

      如果句首的幾個詞出現了更多的可能性,比如 to do/ doing/ having done/ by/ so/ only if 等等,整句話怎么可能不豐富多樣。

      1. 以主句開始整句話

      任何一個句子,剝去修飾成分,都是由主謂賓構成的(或者主謂、主系表),于是,句首的幾個詞,一般是主語。主語可以是什么呢?

      大多數的時候,想要寫清楚一個意思,這幾種主語的形式都有可能,可以根據不同的情景,前后相互微調一下即可。
      Undergraduates feel under increasing pressure, because of the soaring unemployment rate. 名詞
      Those who are about to graduate from university may feel under increasing pressure, because of the soaring unemployment rate. 代詞
      To find a decent and well-paid job seems to be increasingly difficult for the undergraduate. 不定式
      Finding a satisfying career is no easy task for most undergraduates. 動名詞

      2. 以狀語開始整句話

      一個句子除了主句,通常還有很多的補充成分,可以提到句首去的,往往是一些狀語,比如時間、地點、目的、頻率、表達情感態度的副詞、連接副詞等。這樣,通過改變他們的位置,讓句子產生更多的可能性。
      In contemporary society, moral education is an increasing important issue in the course of development.
      Inevitably, those who resist tackling climate change point to the global nature of emissions as a reason not to act.
      On aglobal scale, countries that supply capital equipment look like they will be the front-line beneficiaries of this package.
      From linguistic perspectives, research on the minority languages and different dialects of a country is of high importance to understand the formation of a nation and certain races.
      Through this way, the traditional culture will be kept from generation to generation.
      As essence of a local culture, traditional arts reflect a nation’s artistic talents and traditions.

      Artificial lighting at night is contributing to an alarming increase in light pollution, both in amount and in brightness, affecting places all over the world, a new study has found.
      → As is found in a new study, both in amount and in brightness, artificial lighting at night is contributing to an alarming increase in light pollution, affecting places all over the world.
      狀語(副詞)的位置一般比較靈活,在動詞的附近,或者在句子的前后一般是說得通的,所以,這個方法是值得一試的。

      3. 以從句開始整句話

      如果句首不是直接出現主句,不妨先出現從句,根據相應的邏輯關系,選取合適的連詞即可。大部分的從句,特別是狀語從句,都可以放在句首,然后再寫主句(so that 結果狀語從句除外)。

      除了各種狀語從句(if/ when/ because/ although/ in order that/ where)之外,比較少用的主語從句,也可能出現在句首。
      If the public transportation served this purpose, people would protest less about giving up their cars.
      Even though students may find some subjects difficult, the experience of dealing with the challenges can be valuable to them.
      Because tourists often carry expensive objects like cameras and are unaware of their surroundings, they make good targets for theft.
      As economic conditions improve, many people maintain that government should spend money on great projects such as building stadiums, theatres and museums.
      When a media outlet is forced to cover national and international news, it cannot address numerous interesting local stories because these stories are not of interest to very many viewers.
      Whether the energy can be in the circulatory use affects our choice in so many alternative sources.

      4. 以固定句型開始整句話

      部分時候,除了直接說出句子最核心的內容之外,可以在句首套上一個較為死板固定的常用句式,有的時候也許會顯得啰嗦,更多時候,是增加句子多樣性的一個不錯的方法。

      很多以 there be 或者 it 作形式主語開頭的套句,都具有這樣的功效。
      There is no doubt that the relationship between family members is not as close as it used to be.
      With the increasing level of globalization, more and more students choose to study in other countries.
      Without government funding, hospitals have to make profit to survive.
      It is an established fact that emissions from engines pollute the atmosphere.
      There is a general acceptance that the government should balance its budget.

      5. 以分詞結構開始整句話

      這種形式,相對還是有些難操作的。本來分詞的形式(doing/ -ed)就是語法上來講,比較難的一種形式,而且還要放在句首,可能會比較吃力。

      建議大家可以先嘗試仿寫已有的句子,等熟練之后,在自由地去寫出這樣的句型。

      Having been inherited, developed, opened up and innovated, old style Chinese palace foods with new features are ready to serve you.
      Invented less than a hundred years ago, computers are now used everywhere, even inside classrooms.
      Considering the fact that there is only one car for every 580 Chinese at present, the potential auto market is extremely attractive.
      Given the limited financial capacities of rural authorities and the large number of rural poor, a significant increase in government spending on healthcare is required.
      Not having enough funding, the company had no choice but to temporarily stop the R& D plan.

      6. 以倒裝開始整句話

      這種方式更加復雜和高級了。前提必須是已經很好地掌握了倒裝句,才能準確并且及時地想到用這些本不該出現在句首的東西出現在句首。

      這里篇幅有限,就不逐一展開講解了,常見倒裝之后可能放在句首的有:so/ only if/ only by/ 形容詞/ not only/ hardly/ never/ not until 等。
      Not only could the acquisition of a foreign language promote the children’s intelligence development, but also it could stimulate their interest for study and enrich their knowledge scope.
      So serious is this problem that we have no alternative but to take some effective measures to solve this problem.
      Only by continuous efforts to put a full stop into a comma and to pursue your goal can a perfect full stop be waiting for you in the front.
      Not until the beginning of last century did people know electricity had a great impact on people's life.
      Only in recent years have women begun to catch up with men in this area.
      Splendid is the architecture of Manhattan, the heart of the city, with its hundred and more skyscrapers.

      當然,使句子更加多變,方法還有很多,我們不必一次吃成一個大胖子,學到一個,掌握一個,才是最實在的。對于英文論文寫作還有相關疑問的同學可以聯系我們的客服!美倫現旗下寫手超過400名,海龜碩博占據50%以上,更多寫手資源正在火熱招募中。美倫以質量為根本,誠信服務,嚴格執行雙重審稿與檢測,保證每一篇稿子都是精心原創并符合學科的需求,保障了留學生論文作業的通過率。

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