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留學論文寫作中要如何寫好introduction?

發表時間:2018-04-29

很多留學生對于引言部分的理解還不夠透徹,今天Meeloun小編給同學們分享How to writing the introduction。我們會詳細描述在留學論文寫作中Introduction的基本組成部分,以及每個組成部分改怎么撰寫,避免在英文寫作中出現錯誤。

      what is the Introduction?
      引言是什么?

      The introduction is the first part of an essay, usually the first paragraph. The introduction dose not have to be written first, however. Some writers design and write this part of the essay last or at another point in their writing process.
      引言(Introduction)一般是文章的第一段。
 
      There are many ways to write an introduction. Some writers begin with a question. Other writers give background information about the topic. The kind of introduction you choose depends on how you want to present the topic and the kind of essay you decide to write.

      引言(Introduction)的寫法有很多中,有些作者以一個問句開始,有些作者寫主題的背景信息。無論你選擇哪一種引言,依賴于你想表達的主題和你決定寫的作文類型。

      What is in the introduction?
      引言包含什么?

      The introduction for most essays is one paragraph. This introductory paragraph usually consists of three parts。

      引言一般由三個部分組成:1. 勾 2. 鏈接信息 3. 文章主旨

留學論文寫作中引言的組成部分
      Now look at each of these parts to see what they are and how they work in the introduction.
      下面為大家詳細介紹引言的各個組成部分。

      The Hook(勾)
hook在引言中的作用
      The hook is the opening statement or statements of an essay. Just as people use a hook at the end of a fishing pole to catch a fish, writers use a hook to catch the reader’s attention. If a hook does its job well, readers will stay with the essay and want to read the rest of it. The hook is the one part of an essay where you can be as creative as you want.

      “勾”顧名思義是吸引的意思,引起讀者的興趣和注意力。勾的作用是打開文章想要闡述的主旨,吸引讀者有興趣閱讀全文。這個勾是文章的一部分,引起讀者的想象以及勾起讀者迫不及待閱讀下文的想法。
 
      There are many different ways to write a hook.
      Ask a question.
      Use an interesting observation.
      Use a unique scenario to catch readers” attention.
      Begin with a famous quote.
      Use a surprising or shocking statistic.
      為了達到“勾”所起的作用,引起讀者的興趣和注意力。 準確的“勾”的表達方式主要有5種:

      Ask a question
      提出一個問題

      如果讀者想要知道這個問題的答案,那說明他們已經被“勾”住并想要讀這個文章。例如:一篇關于“在科技使用方面需要更多規則”的文章,如果你是作者,你可能會在開頭提出以下問題,以引起讀者興趣:

      How many people begin their mornings-every day-by checking their cell phones?

      Use an interesting observation
      使用一個有趣的視角來觀察

      例如:
      European economists are not sleeping well these days.

      這個觀察使讀者想要了解為什么經濟學家不能睡個好覺了。這個勾可以引出文章的主旨,突出引起三個主要在歐洲經濟衰退的原因。

      Use a unique scenario 
      使用一個特定場景吸引讀者的注意力

      例如:
      Travelling at more than one hundred miles an hour, he feels as though he is not moving. He is engulfed in complete silence. For a moment, it is as if he has entered another dimension.

      Begin with a famous quote
      引用名言

      例如:
      I have a dream.

      許多讀者看到這個“勾”一定會想到馬丁路德金,以及他的戰斗。但是也許這個勾只是一篇文章的開始,也許這篇文章就是寫關于睡覺模型的。但是你已經被吸引了,不是嗎?

      Use a surprising or shocking statistic
      使用一個令人震驚的統計

      例如:
      The divorce rate in the United State is well over 50 percent.

      使用這種夸張的統計,會讓讀者覺得不可思議,而去讀剩下的文章,看數據是否真實。而這個“勾”起到吸引讀者去閱讀。

      Connection information
      鏈接信息

      After the hook, the writer usually writes connecting information, which is three to five sentences that help connect the reader to the topic. These sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples.

      在文章最開始“勾”后,將會寫鏈接信息。鏈接信息一般是3-5個句子,可以幫助讀者鏈接到主旨句。在漢語里面應該叫做“過渡句”,讓讀者能接受文章接下來要講什么內容。這些鏈接的句子可以是背景信息,也可以是具體的例子。

      例如:文章How Cinderella probably spent her day before she met the prince? 也許你會寫一些例子作為鏈接信息。

      Her daily routine was not glamorous. She did everything from sweeping the floors to cooking the meals. If someone had asked Cinderella which chores she did not particularly like, she probably would have answered,” Why, none, of course. Housework is duty!”

      通過以上句子想表達的信息,讀者會很清楚文章將要表達的主題---unpleasant housework chores.

      The thesis statement
      文章主旨

      The Thesis Statement is usually the last part of the introduction. It is usually one sentence. In the Thesis Statement. The writer tells the reader what to expect in the essay. Basically, there are two kinds of thesis statements- direct and indirect.( they may also be called stated and implied thesis statements.)

      主旨句一般是引言的最后一個部分,一般是一個完整的句子。通過這個主旨句,作者將告訴讀者文章將要表達的中心思想是什么。一般有兩種不同的方式表達文章主旨--直接表達和間接表達。

      Direct Thesis Statement
      1. Direct Thesis Statement. some writers want to give a specific outline of their thesis statements. 

      Read the following example:

      The main problems facing this nation are a lack of job opportunities for citizens, government corruption, and limited university programs for poor students.
 
      這樣的主旨句叫做直接主旨,清楚明白的闡明文章想要表達的中心思想。讀者將會明白,文章有三個主要的部分。第一部分討論的是工作機會,第二部分將討論政府腐敗,最后一部分將討論貧困學生的大學計劃。

      Indirect Thesis Statement
      2. Indirect Thesis Statement. Other writes are not so direct. Discussing a similar topic as the previous:

      There are three important problems facing the nation today that require immediate attention.
 
      這樣的主旨句叫暗旨,沒有直接表明文章將要表達的主要觀點,只表明文章下文將表達單個方面的因素。如果讀者向知道他們國家具體面對哪些問題,那么需要讀者去閱讀文章下文,找到下文章支持觀點的論證。這樣的主旨叫做Indirect thesis.

      今天主要跟大家講的是英文寫作中引言(Introduction)的詳細寫法,希望大家選一個自己感興趣的主題,進行練習。對于留學論文寫作還有疑問的同學可以聯系我們的客服!美倫現旗下寫手超過400名,海龜碩博占據50%以上,更多寫手資源正在火熱招募中。美倫以質量為根本,誠信服務,嚴格執行雙重審稿與檢測,保證每一篇稿子都是精心原創并符合學科的需求,保障了留學生論文作業的通過率。

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