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代寫Essay最常用的六種Paraphrase方法

發表時間:2019-11-18 13:22:11

      留學生在Essay寫作中經常需要對文章主旨或原文中的關鍵細節進行轉述(paraphrase)。很多留學生憑借自己的感覺使用自己最熟悉,用的最舒服的方式進行改寫,導致最終和原文差別不大,paraphrase也就沒有了效果。

      作為專業Essay代寫機構,Meeloun論文網小編今天給大家梳理了一下同學們在實際操作過程中最常用的六大paraphrase方法:同/反義詞替換、詞性變換、主被動語態變換、短語從句變換、句子合并和拆分以及邏輯的等價變換。

      方法一:同/反義詞替換

      這是paraphrase最常用的方法之一,即將句子中的關鍵詞用它的同義詞或反義詞來替換。

      例1:Early tech has cognitive benefits as well.

      Paraphrase:Early tech has cognitive advantages as well.

      例2:Too often these sort of efforts wind up feeling marginal or even patronizing.

      Paraphrase:Too often these sort of efforts seldom end up feeling important or appreciated.

      方法二:詞性變換

      顧名思義,這種方法就是將句子中的某些詞通過轉換詞性而達到轉述的目的,比如動詞換成名詞詞組等。

      例1:Almost 90 percent of workers do not have access to paid family leave.

      Paraphrase:Paid family leave is inaccessible to almost 90 percent of workers.

      例2:In fact,compared to paper bags,plastic grocery bags produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions.

      Paraphrase:In fact,in comparison to paper bags,plastic grocery bags produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions.

      方法三:主被動語態變換

      除了變換句子里面的某個詞以外,我們還可以把句子所用的語態進行變換,主動變被動或被動變主動,以達到paraphrase的目的。

      例1:Over half of the American workforce does not have access to employer-provided personal leave.

      Paraphrase:Employer-provided personal leave is not granted to over half of the American workforce.

      例2:Such proposed development would forever destroy the wilderness character of American’s only Arctic Refuge…

      Paraphrase:The wilderness character of American’s only Arctic Refuge would be wrecked/ruined/devastated by such proposed development.

      方法四:短語從句變換

      很多句子當中,從句往往能改寫成帶有動詞ing或ed形式的短語。這種看似復雜實則簡單的變換,常常能讓句子改頭換面。

      例:Faces and insights reside on social media,waiting to be harvested by the digitally literate contemporary correspondent.

      Paraphrase:Facts and insights reside on social media,which need to be collected and organized by modern correspondent who is good at online technology.

      方法五:句子合并和拆分

      很多留學生為了突出自己的寫作能力往往會使用長句。但這也為我們在進行句子轉述的時候提供了一個思路:即將多個簡單句通過從句或短語合并成一個長句,或將一個長句拆分成幾個短句。

      例1:We can celebrate the democratization of media,the breakdown of monopolies,the rise of innovative means of telling stories,and the inclusion of a diversity of voices,and still ask whether the results are making us better informed.

      Paraphrase:Media is becoming more democratic;monopolies have been destroyed;innovative means of telling stories are emerging;diverse voices is included.All these phenomena should be celebrated.In the meanwhile,we should still ask whether the results are making us better informed.

      以上就是一個長句拆分成多個短句的例子。有些同學可能不理解:原文中的長句寫的這么“華麗”,我為什么要把它拆成看起來沒有那么“厲害”的短句呢?其實會拆分短句在 Essay寫作過程中很重要,因為有時候,整個句子很長,其中某些信息可能對我們無用,也就是說,我們并不需要轉述整個句子,而只需提取其中的某部分信息,這個時候句子的拆分就派上用場了。

      方法六:邏輯的等價變換

      英文中的很多邏輯結構是相通的(雖然不完全一致),我們可以利用這個特點,來完成句子的轉述。

      例1:讓步←→對比

      Although arrests were made in this case,and two auction houses in Jerusalem canceled the sale of 126 antiquities after being contacted by Egyptian officials,the tide unfortunately flows in the other direction.

      Paraphrase:Admittedly,some heritage thieves were arrested and Egyptian government succeeded in stopping the auction of 126 antiquities in Jerusalem,but ironically the situation of heritage protection is getting even worse.

      例2:因果←→強調句

      Currently,the United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that does not provide some sort of paid leave to its workers.As a result,workers withdraw from the workforce for family and medical reasons leaving them with less income in the short run,lower chances to achieve raises and promotions,a greater reliance on social welfare programs,a reduction in Social Security benefits,and a lower accumulation of lifetime earnings.

      Paraphrase:Gillibrand asserts that it is the lack of paid leave that triggers/results in/leads to a series of profound,negative consequences for workers who withdraw from the workplace for family and medical reasons.

      溫馨小提示:細心的同學們可能已經發現了,在上述的一些例句中,有部分句子不止用了一種paraphrase的方法,比如方法六中的例句1,不僅進行了邏輯上的轉換,還將被動語態轉換成了主動語態,同時也進行了一些同義詞組的替換。在平時練習和真實考試的過程中,也建議大家對一個句子中的多處用多種方法的結合進行轉述。否則轉述出來的句子不僅與原文差別不大,更會給考官一種投機取巧的感覺。

      剛開始進行句子paraphrase的時候可能會比較慢,但只要我們通過科學的方法,進行一段時間的練習,相信一定會有進步的!如果是寫作能力較差的同學,尤其是在這臨近期末的季節,可能會有很多Essay需要寫,為此建議選擇代寫Essay機構來做,歡迎選擇meeloun論文網,我們專注為留學生提供100%原創Essay代寫服務,高分通過保障,免費售后支持,歡迎咨詢網站客服。

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