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Essay代寫分享:學術Essay寫作簡單且穩定的架構

發表時間:2019-11-27 10:41:09

       學術essay寫作(academic writing),無論是論文還是專著,間架要穩固,才有可讀性,才有說服力。

學術Essay寫作

Essay代寫分享:學術Essay寫作簡單且穩定的架構

       穩,有幾個應然特征:部塊(parts)關聯緊密;部塊不外生枝葉;部塊之間沒有雜質干擾。

       穩固間架,有多種建構方法。


       其中,主界定要素間架法(core-definition-factors framing)最穩固、最簡單,最合適年輕學術essay寫作者(academic writers),也最合適面向年輕讀者的學術讀物。

       主界定,是對研究對象(object of research)的本質(nature)、基本特征(fundamental characters,essential qualities)與界域(scope,territory)的描述。做主界定,目的是鎖定研究對象。不做主界定,研究對象會游移,研究視域會漂移。

       一切界定,如果有效,都簡明扼要,都有三至五個要素(key factors of definition),用三至五個關鍵詞或三五個語句呈現。但是,因為研究對象不同,也因為寫作目的不同,界定有時一步到位,因此,只包含一套要素;有時兩步或多步到位,因此,包含兩套或多套要素。
學術Essay寫作
       例一

       …education is understood to involve organized and sustained communication designed to bring about learning.

       --UNESCO,International Standard Classification of Education,ISCED 1997.

       例一界定“教育”,一步到位,用一個語句描述教育的本質。

       例二

       Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals,working together in groups,efficiently accomplish selected aims.This basic definition needs to be expanded.

       As managers,people carry out the managerial functions of planning,organizing,staffing,leading,and controlling.

       Management applies to any kind of organization.

       It applies to managers at all organizational levels.

       The aim of all managers is the same:to create a surplus.

       Managing is concerned with productivity,which implies effectiveness and efficiency.

       --Koontz,H.,&Weihrich,H.Essentials of Management.

       這個界定“管理”,兩步到位。第一步做基本界定,描述管理的本質,指出管理是“實現所選目標”的“設計與維持過程”。但是,這還不足以說清管理是什么,因此,第二步做擴展界定,說明管理的功能、界域與目標等。
學術Essay寫作
       例三

       This small book attempts to explain a rationale for viewing,analyzing and interpreting the curriculum and instruction.…

       The rationale developed here begins with identifying four fundamental questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction.These are:

       1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

       2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?

       3.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

       4.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

       --Tyler,R.W.Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.

       例三界定“課程與教學原理”,也兩步到位。第一步做基本界定,描述課程與教學原理的本質,指出它是“觀測、分析與闡釋課程與教學的原理”。但是,這還不足以說清“課程與教學原理”是什么,因此,第二步做擴展界定,指出它是觀測、分析與闡釋四個基本問題。

       主界定要素間架法,是以主界定的要素為根據構建學術essay寫作的間架,即:有幾個要素就打造幾個主體部塊,每個主體部塊對應一個要素,按要素呈現順序將部塊連成整體。

       例四

       Contents

       Part 1:The Basic of Global Management Theory and Practice(Chapters 1-3)

       Part 2:Planning(Chapters 4-6)

       Part 3:Organizing(Chapters 7-10)

       Part 4:Staffing(Chapters 11-13)

       Part 5:Leading(Chapters 14-17)

       Part 6:Controlling(Chapters 18-20)

       --Koontz,H.,&Weihrich,H.Essentials of Management.

       這部書的主體部塊,完全對應(例二所示)主界定之管理功能。
學術Essay寫作
       例五

       Contents

       Introduction

       1.What Educational Purposes Should the School Seek to Attain?

       2.How Can Learning Experiences Be Selected Which Are Likely to Be Useful in Attaining These Objectives?

       3.How Can Learning Experiences Be Organized for Effective Instruction?

       4.How Can the Effectiveness of Learning Experiences Be Evaluated?

       5.How a School or College Staff May Work on Curriculum Building

       --Tyler,R.W.Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.

       這部書的主體部塊,完全對應(例三所示)主界定之四個基本問題,只是措辭不同。

       作為間架構建根據的主界定要素必須是平行要素。

       如果主界定包含兩套或多套要素,依據只能是其中一套。不能將基本界定的要素與擴展界定的要素上下位亂搭,也不能將擴展界定不同部分的要素左右位交錯。如:

       例六

       Part 1:Management Theory and Practice

       Part 2:Designing

       Part 3:Maintaining

       Part 4:Planning and Organizing

       Part 5:Staffing

       Part 6:Leading and Controlling

       例七

       Part 1:Management Theory and Practice

       Part 2:Planning and Organizing

       Part 3:Staffing,Leading and Controlling

       Part 4:Organizations

       Part 5:Managers

       Part 6:Productivity

       例二、例四所示,是一本大書。例三、例五所示,是一本小書,篇幅相當于學位論文。

       主界定要素間架法,是學術essay寫作最穩最簡間架法,于大部頭著作如此,于期刊論文如此,于學術論文更是如此。


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